What Is A Meme?


Definition of a Meme

A meme is a concept, behavior, or idea that spreads rapidly across a culture through imitation. It can be in the form of an image, video, hashtag, catchphrase, or even a piece of music. Memes often convey humor, irony, satire, social commentary, or cultural references, and have become an integral part of online communication in the digital age.

Coined by Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book “The Selfish Gene,” the term “meme” is derived from the Greek word “mimeme,” meaning “something imitated.” Dawkins used it to describe how ideas replicate and evolve in a manner similar to genes. Over time, the meaning of the word has transformed, and now memes have become a ubiquitous presence in our daily lives.

Memes are characterized by their incredible ability to spread rapidly and widely through online platforms and social media. They tap into shared experiences, emotions, and cultural references, allowing people to relate and connect with one another in an instant. Memes often mimic and exaggerate certain human behaviors or situations, resulting in humorous or relatable content that resonates with a wide audience.

What sets memes apart is their viral nature. When a meme strikes a chord with internet users, it can quickly gain traction and be shared across various online platforms, reaching millions of people within a short period. This virality is fueled by the ease with which users can share, remix, and adapt memes, allowing them to evolve and take on a life of their own.

Memes serve as a form of cultural currency, shaping and reflecting the zeitgeist. They capture the current mood, trends, and events, making them a powerful tool for social commentary and critique. Memes give individuals a platform to express their thoughts, opinions, and frustrations in a format that is both engaging and accessible.

Moreover, memes have bridged the gap between internet culture and popular culture. They have become a part of mainstream media and have influenced various creative industries, including advertising, art, and entertainment. Memes have the power to influence public opinion, influence purchasing decisions, and even shape political discourse.

Origin of Memes

The concept of memes can be traced back to the work of Richard Dawkins, a British scientist and author. In his book “The Selfish Gene” published in 1976, Dawkins introduced the term “meme” to describe the cultural units that transmit ideas, behaviors, or styles from person to person within a society.

Building on the idea of genes as replicators, Dawkins proposed that memes are the cultural equivalent, replicating and spreading through imitation. He believed that memes, just like genes, undergo processes of variation, selection, and transmission, resulting in their evolution over time.

Early memes were primarily propagated through oral traditions, storytelling, and written language. They were passed from one generation to another, evolving and adapting to specific cultural contexts. However, it was the rise of the internet in the late 20th century that revolutionized the way memes are created, shared, and consumed.

The internet provided a global platform for the rapid dissemination of content, allowing memes to spread at an unprecedented speed. The emergence of online forums, social media platforms, and image-sharing websites democratized the creation and distribution of memes, making them accessible to a wide range of individuals.

In the early days of the internet, memes often took the form of simple images or text-based jokes. These memes, also known as “image macros,” combined a humorous or relatable image with text overlaid on top. Examples include the iconic “I Can Has Cheezburger” cat meme or the “Advice Animal” series featuring animals with humorous captions.

As the internet evolved, memes became more complex and diverse. Videos, animated GIFs, and even sound bites became popular formats for memes. Memes started to incorporate popular culture references, political satire, and social commentary, reflecting the changing dynamics of online culture.

Today, memes have become an integral part of internet culture, and their origin is often difficult to trace. They are created and shared by individuals from all walks of life, and the lifecycle of a meme can vary from a few hours of viral fame to becoming a long-lasting cultural phenomenon.

It is important to note that memes are not limited to online spaces. Many memes have their roots in offline culture and are later adapted for internet consumption. This shows the symbiotic relationship between online and offline culture and how memes act as a bridge between the two.

Overall, the origin of memes can be attributed to the human need for storytelling, imitation, and cultural transmission. They have evolved from the oral traditions of our ancestors to the digital age of the internet, shaping the way we communicate, share ideas, and find humor in our everyday lives.

Types of Memes

Memes come in various forms and styles. They have evolved alongside the internet and have adapted to different cultural contexts and online platforms. Here are some of the most common types of memes:

Image Macros:

Image macros are one of the earliest and simplest forms of memes. They consist of an image (often a picture of a recognizable character or scene) with text overlaid on top. Image macros are typically used to convey humorous or relatable messages and are widely shared on social media platforms.

Viral Challenges:

Viral challenges are memes that involve individuals or groups participating in a specific activity or behavior and then challenging others to do the same. These challenges often gain widespread attention and participation, leading to a viral trend. Examples include the Ice Bucket Challenge or the Mannequin Challenge.

Reaction Memes:

Reaction memes are based on a specific image or GIF that is used to express a particular emotion or reaction. These memes are often used in response to something happening in a conversation, social media post, or online discussion. They are an effective way to convey emotions and add humor to online interactions.

Video Memes:

Video memes involve short video clips or snippets that are often edited or remixed to create humorous or satirical content. These memes can feature scenes from movies, TV shows, or other media, and are shared widely on platforms like YouTube and social media.

Hashtag Memes:

Hashtag memes are memes that are centered around a specific hashtag. These memes often involve individuals using a particular hashtag to share humorous, relatable, or trending content. Hashtag memes can gain popularity quickly, especially on platforms like Twitter and Instagram.

Text-Based Memes:

Text-based memes rely on clever wordplay, puns, or cleverly formatted text to convey humor or a specific message. They often use ASCII characters, emoticons, or specific fonts to enhance the effect of the text. These memes are commonly shared on forums, text-based platforms, and social media.

These are just a few examples of the types of memes that exist. The beauty of memes is that they continuously evolve and adapt to new platforms and trends, creating an ever-changing landscape of humor, social commentary, and cultural references.

Internet Memes

Internet memes refer to the memes that originate and circulate primarily on the internet. They have become a central element of online culture, shaping the way we communicate, express ourselves, and find humor in the digital age.

One of the defining characteristics of internet memes is their ability to spread rapidly and widely across various online platforms. They often start as niche or underground content but can quickly gain traction and become viral sensations. This viral nature is facilitated by social media platforms, online forums, and image-sharing websites, where users can easily discover, create, and share memes.

Internet memes are known for their relatability, as they often tap into shared experiences, emotions, and cultural references. They capture universal themes and sentiments, allowing people from different backgrounds and locations to connect and find common ground. Memes create a sense of shared humor and understanding, fostering a sense of community in the online world.

Another characteristic of internet memes is their ability to evolve and adapt. Memes can mutate and take on different forms as they are remixed, modified, and shared by internet users. They often go through a cycle of popularity, with new variations and interpretations emerging over time. This continuous evolution keeps internet memes fresh and engaging, ensuring their relevance in the ever-changing landscape of online culture.

Internet memes have also become a platform for social and political commentary. They allow individuals to express their opinions, frustrations, or critique in a digestible and shareable format. Memes can serve as a form of satire, highlighting societal issues or lampooning public figures. They create a space for discourse, encouraging dialogue and debate among internet users.

Furthermore, internet memes have transcended the online realm and have influenced popular culture. Memes have found their way into advertising campaigns, influencing marketing strategies and becoming a way for brands to connect with their target audience. Memes are also seen in movies, television shows, and other media, reflecting their impact and widespread recognition.

Internet memes have become an integral part of our digital lives, providing entertainment, connection, and a means of self-expression. They reflect and shape our collective consciousness, offering a unique and often humorous lens through which we view the world. As the internet continues to evolve, so too will the world of internet memes, ensuring the continued relevance and impact of this cultural phenomenon.

Viral Memes

Viral memes are a subset of internet memes that gain rapid popularity and widespread attention. These memes quickly capture the collective imagination of internet users and spread like wildfire across various online platforms.

One of the key features of viral memes is their ability to resonate with a large audience. They often tap into shared experiences, emotions, or cultural references that strike a chord with people. Whether it’s a relatable situation, a clever joke, or a satirical take on a current event, viral memes have a way of capturing the zeitgeist and connecting with individuals on a mass scale.

Timing and context play crucial roles in the virality of memes. Memes that are shared during significant events or cultural moments tend to gain more traction. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, memes about social distancing and working from home became widespread as people sought humor and shared experiences during a challenging time.

Platforms like Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, and TikTok serve as catalysts for the viral spread of memes. Users rapidly share, retweet, or repost memes, driving their visibility and reach. Hashtags and trends also contribute to the virality, allowing users to discover and participate in popular meme formats or challenges.

Another factor that contributes to the viral nature of memes is their shareability and adaptability. Memes are often easily understandable and digestible, making them highly shareable on different platforms. They can also be easily remixed, modified, or customized to fit specific contexts or individual preferences. By allowing users to participate and contribute to the meme’s evolution, viral memes can gain longevity and continue to spread over time.

Viral memes can have a significant impact, shaping conversations, influencing opinions, and leaving a lasting impression on popular culture. These memes have the power to create moments of collective humor, joy, and even controversy. Memes that go viral can transcend online spaces and become part of mainstream media, with news outlets and celebrities referencing or incorporating them into their content.

It’s worth noting that the virality of memes is often short-lived. As the internet moves at a fast pace, the attention span for viral memes can be fleeting, with new memes quickly taking their place. However, some viral memes manage to leave a lasting impact and become iconic, ingrained in our collective memory and cultural lexicon.

Ultimately, viral memes capture the essence of internet culture, fostering connection, amusement, and shared experiences. They exemplify the internet’s ability to create viral sensations that transcend geographic boundaries and unite individuals through humor and cultural understanding.

Memes in Pop Culture

Memes have become an integral part of popular culture, shaping the way we engage with entertainment, media, and even advertising. They have transcended the boundaries of the internet and have found their way into various facets of our daily lives.

In the realm of entertainment, memes have infiltrated movies, TV shows, and music. Memes often originate from popular culture references, and when they gain enough traction online, they find their way back into mainstream media. Memorable quotes, iconic scenes, or memorable characters from movies and TV shows are often adapted into memes and shared across platforms.

Music, too, has not been spared from the influence of memes. Songs that go viral as memes become chart-toppers, as the catchy tunes and humorous lyrics capture the attention of listeners. Artists themselves often embrace memes, incorporating them into their music videos, social media posts, and live performances to engage with fans and generate buzz.

Memes have also left a mark on the world of advertising. Brands have recognized the power of memes as a way to connect with their target audience. They utilize meme formats, recognizable characters, or viral trends to create relatable and shareable content that resonates with consumers. Such memes, often referred to as “advertising memes,” can have a significant impact on brand awareness and perception.

Moreover, memes have influenced the world of fashion and merchandising. Memes have become a popular motif on clothing, accessories, and other merchandise. Catchphrases or images from viral memes are often printed on t-shirts, hoodies, and phone cases, allowing individuals to showcase their participation in internet culture.

Memes have even made their way into the art world. Artists experiment with the concept of memes to create thought-provoking or satirical pieces that reflect the influence and impact of internet culture. Museums and galleries have showcased meme-inspired artwork, blurring the line between digital and traditional forms of art.

Overall, the presence of memes in popular culture is a testament to their widespread reach and influence. They have become a language of their own, uniting people from different backgrounds and generations through shared humor and references. Memes have become a means of expression, a source of entertainment, and a reflection of our ever-evolving digital society.

Memes in Social Media

Social media platforms have played a significant role in the rise and spread of memes. Memes and social media go hand in hand, as these online platforms provide the perfect environment for memes to thrive, evolve, and reach a global audience.

Social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and TikTok are fertile grounds for meme culture to flourish. Users can easily discover, create, and share memes with just a few taps or clicks. Memes spread rapidly through the interconnected nature of social media, allowing them to reach millions of people within a short span of time.

Social media platforms also provide a breeding ground for meme communities and subcultures. Online communities dedicated to specific types of memes, such as wholesome memes, dank memes, or niche fandom memes, have sprouted up on platforms like Reddit. These communities become hubs for meme creators and enthusiasts to exchange ideas, showcase their work, and contribute to meme trends.

Hashtags and trending topics further accelerate the spread of memes on social media. Users can easily discover and participate in popular meme formats or challenges by following trending hashtags. Memes that align with current events, holidays, or pop culture moments often go viral, permeating social media feeds and capturing the attention of users.

Social media platforms have also influenced the evolution of meme formats. Memes have become more visual, animated, and interactive, taking advantage of the features and tools offered by social media platforms. Video memes, GIFs, and interactive image formats have become increasingly popular, allowing users to create and share dynamic and engaging content.

Memes on social media foster a sense of community and connection. They create a shared language and common ground for users to relate to one another. Memes are often used to communicate and engage in online conversations, adding humor and levity to discussions.

Furthermore, social media platforms provide a platform for individuals to express their creativity and showcase their meme-making skills. Memes have become a form of self-expression, enabling users to share their perspectives, sense of humor, and wit with a wide audience. This democratization of meme creation has allowed talented meme creators to gain recognition and build followings on social media.

The influence of memes on social media extends beyond just entertainment. Memes have been used as vehicles for social and political activism, with users creating memes to raise awareness, challenge, or satirize societal norms and issues. Memes have the power to spark conversations, challenge narratives, and foster social change.

How Memes Spread

Memes have a unique ability to spread rapidly and widely across the internet, capturing the attention and engagement of users. The viral nature of memes can be attributed to several factors that contribute to their widespread dissemination:


Memes are highly shareable, thanks to the ease of sharing content on social media platforms and other online communities. With just a few clicks or taps, users can repost, retweet, or share memes with their friends, followers, or online communities. The simplicity of sharing encourages users to spread memes, leading to their widespread exposure.


Memes resonate with people because they tap into shared experiences, emotions, and cultural references. Memes often reflect common situations, frustrations, or humorous observations that many individuals can relate to. This relatability creates a sense of connection and encourages users to share memes with others who may also find them relatable.


Humor is a powerful driver of meme sharing. Memes often convey humor through clever wordplay, visual jokes, or satirical commentary. Humor has the ability to evoke positive emotions and create a sense of enjoyment. People are more likely to share content that makes them laugh, thus contributing to the spread of memes.

Visual Appeal:

Memes are visual in nature, using images or animations combined with text to convey a message or a punchline. The visual appeal of memes makes them attention-grabbing and easily consumable in the fast-paced online environment. Eye-catching and visually appealing memes are more likely to catch the attention of users and be shared.

Trends and Relevance:

Memes often align with current events, popular culture, or internet trends. Memes that tap into trending topics or cultural moments have a higher chance of going viral as they capture the interest of a broader audience. By staying relevant and embracing emerging trends, memes can quickly gain traction and be widely shared.

User Participation:

The participatory nature of memes contributes to their spread. Users often remix or create variations of existing memes, adding their own creative twist to the content. This active user participation not only enhances the meme’s appeal but also allows it to evolve and adapt. By allowing users to participate in the meme’s creation and evolution, the meme becomes more inclusive and engaging for a wider audience.

Combining these factors, memes spread like wildfire across social media platforms, online communities, and other digital spaces. Memes can quickly go from being niche content to viral sensations, reaching millions of users globally within a short period. The infectious nature of memes and their ability to connect people through humor and shared experiences have made them an integral part of internet culture.

Memes and Humor

Humor lies at the heart of memes, making them an effective vehicle for comedic expression and social commentary. Memes have redefined the way we communicate humor in the digital age, offering a unique blend of wit, satire, and relatability that resonates with audiences worldwide.

Memes use various comedic techniques to elicit laughter and amusement. They often rely on clever wordplay, visual jokes, or ironic juxtapositions to create humorous effects. Memes can be observational, highlighting funny aspects of everyday life, or they can employ sarcasm and satire to mock societal norms, behaviors, and trends.

The beauty of memes lies in their versatility. They can take on different forms and styles, embracing a wide range of comedic approaches. Some memes rely on absurdity, creating bizarre or surreal scenarios that defy logic. Others use slapstick humor or physical comedy to generate laughter. Memes can also parody popular culture, politics, or current events, offering a humorous lens through which we view the world.

One of the reasons memes are so popular is their ability to capture and reflect aspects of our shared human experience. Memes often tap into relatable situations, emotions, or cultural references, allowing individuals from diverse backgrounds to connect through humor. By creating a sense of common ground, memes foster a sense of community and belonging in the online world.

Humor in memes can serve various purposes. It can provide entertainment, bringing joy and laughter to people’s lives. It can also act as a coping mechanism, offering a lighthearted escape from the challenges and stress of everyday life. Memes can help us find humor in even the most mundane or difficult situations, allowing us to see the lighter side of things.

Moreover, memes have become a powerful form of social commentary. They provide a platform for individuals to express their views, critique societal norms, and challenge authority. Memes can be used to address serious or sensitive topics in a humorous and approachable manner, opening up conversations and fostering dialogue.

The impact of memes on humor extends beyond the internet. Memes have reshaped popular culture and influenced various creative industries, including comedy. Comedians and comedy writers often draw inspiration from memes, incorporating meme formats, jokes, and cultural references into their routines. Memes have become a source of inspiration and a reflection of the evolving landscape of humor.

Ultimately, memes and humor go hand in hand, transforming the way we laugh, connect, and engage with each other. They provide a shared language of laughter and amusement, making us feel closer and more connected in a digital world filled with endless possibilities for comedic expression.

The Impact and Influence of Memes

Memes have had a profound impact on various aspects of our lives, permeating popular culture, communication, and even shaping societal norms. The influence of memes can be seen in the way we interact, the spread of information, and the formation of collective identity.

One of the key impacts of memes is their ability to create a sense of connection and community. Memes often tap into shared experiences, emotions, or cultural references, enabling people from different backgrounds to relate to one another. This sense of connection fosters a feeling of belonging and collective identity in the vast digital landscape.

Memes also have the power to shape public discourse and influence opinions. They can act as a vehicle for social and political commentary, offering a platform for individuals to express their views or critique prevailing narratives. Memes that address societal issues or challenge authority can spark conversations, raise awareness, and even drive social change.

The influence of memes extends to the realm of advertising and marketing. Brands have recognized the value of memes in reaching and engaging with their target audience. Memes allow brands to connect with consumers, enhance brand awareness, and convey messages in a relatable and humorous way. Memes have become an effective tool for cultivating a brand’s online presence and fostering a sense of connection with consumers.

In addition, memes have reshaped the way we consume and share information. Memes serve as a form of visual communication that is digestible, easily shareable, and can convey complex ideas in a succinct and engaging manner. Memes have become a preferred mode of communication for young generations, influencing the way news, opinions, and ideas are spread on social media platforms.

Furthermore, memes have influenced creative industries and entertainment. Filmmakers, musicians, and artists often draw inspiration from meme culture, incorporating meme formats, references, and humor into their work. Memes have become a source of inspiration and a reflection of contemporary culture, influencing the content we consume and shaping the artistic landscape.

Finally, memes have transformed the way we communicate and express ourselves. They have created a new language and dialect that is shared and understood within online communities and across borders. Memes provide a means of self-expression, allowing individuals to convey thoughts, emotions, and humor in a format that is relatable and accessible to a wide range of audiences.

Creating and Sharing Memes

Creating and sharing memes has become a popular form of self-expression and communication in the digital age. With the widespread availability of online tools and platforms, anyone can become a meme creator and participate in meme culture. Here’s a breakdown of the process of creating and sharing memes:

1. Finding Inspiration:

Creating memes often starts with finding inspiration. Memes can be inspired by current events, popular culture references, funny situations, or personal experiences. Scrolling through social media, following meme accounts, or browsing online forums can provide a steady stream of ideas for meme creation.

2. Selecting a Format:

After finding inspiration, meme creators choose a format for their meme. Memes can take the form of image macros, animated GIFs, videos, or even text-based jokes. The choice of format depends on the message the creator wants to convey and the preferred style of humor.

3. Crafting the Meme:

Once the format is selected, meme creators combine the visual element and the accompanying text to create the desired effect. This often involves overlaying witty captions, manipulating images, or adding text to create a humorous or thought-provoking juxtaposition.

4. Adding Personal Touches:

Meme creators have the freedom to add their own personal touches to make the meme unique. This can include incorporating personal experiences, inside jokes, or specific references that resonate with a particular audience or community.

5. Sharing on Social Media:

The process of meme creation doesn’t end with the final product. Meme creators then share their creations on social media platforms, online forums, or meme-centric communities. They can directly upload the meme or use hashtags to increase its discoverability.

6. Going Viral:

When a meme strikes a chord with the online community, it has the potential to go viral. The viral spread of memes is often fueled by users sharing and resharing them across social media platforms. Memes that capture widespread attention and resonates with a broad audience can quickly gain traction and become viral sensations.

7. Remixing and Adaptation:

Memes are highly adaptable, and users often remix or adapt existing memes to create new variations. This process of remixing allows memes to evolve and take on new contexts and meanings. The remixing and adaptation of memes contribute to their longevity and continued relevance in online culture.

Common Meme Formats

Memes come in various formats, each with its own unique characteristics and styles. These formats have emerged and evolved alongside the growth of meme culture, becoming widely recognized and shared among internet users. Here are some of the most common meme formats:

Image Macros:

Image macros are one of the oldest and most recognizable meme formats. They typically consist of a humorous image combined with text superimposed on top. The text is often a caption, catchphrase, or punchline that adds comedic effect to the image. Image macros are versatile and allow for endless creativity.

Reaction Images/GIFs:

Reaction images or GIFs are memes that portray a specific emotion, reaction, or facial expression. These memes are often used in response to a situation or comment in online conversations. Users share reaction images or GIFs to express emotions ranging from surprise and laughter to skepticism and frustration.

Demotivational Posters:

Demotivational posters are memes that uphold a satirical take on motivational posters. They feature an image or illustration with a humorous or sarcastic caption that subverts the motivational message associated with traditional posters. Demotivational posters often poke fun at motivational clichés or offer tongue-in-cheek commentary on various topics.

Exploitable Memes:

Exploitable memes are memes that have a template or base image that can be easily manipulated or edited to create new variations. These memes allow users to overlay text or images to create humorous or relatable content within a specific template framework. The ability to customize and iterate on the base image allows for endless possibilities and creativity.

Advice Animals:

Advice Animals are a subset of exploitable memes that feature an image of an animal alongside a caption. The animals often have a distinct expression or pose, and the captions typically impart advice, opinions, or humorous commentary. Examples include the “Success Kid,” “Grumpy Cat,” and “Socially Awkward Penguin.”

Viral Challenges:

Viral challenges are memes that involve individuals or groups participating in a specific activity or behavior and then challenging others to do the same. These challenges often gain significant traction and spread rapidly. Whether it’s pouring a bucket of ice water over oneself for the Ice Bucket Challenge or executing a specific dance routine, viral challenges create a sense of participation and community among participants.

These are just a few examples of common meme formats that have become ingrained in internet culture. Memes continue to evolve and adapt, with new formats and variations emerging regularly. The creativity and versatility of meme formats ensure that the world of memes remains ever-changing and full of surprises.

Meme Trends

Meme trends are constantly evolving in response to the ever-changing landscape of internet culture and societal influences. These trends reflect the current attitudes, humor, and interests of online communities. Here are some notable meme trends that have emerged in recent years:

Format Challenges:

Format challenges involve using a specific meme format or template to create variations and adaptations. Users recreate the meme format with their own customized content, often putting a unique spin or personal touch to the original template. These challenges inspire creativity and encourage users to put their own twist on popular meme formats.

Dank Memes:

Dank memes are characterized by their absurd or nonsensical humor. These memes often use surreal or bizarre images, nonsensical captions, and unexpected comedic elements. Dank memes challenge traditional notions of humor and play with the boundaries of what is considered funny, leading to a subculture within meme culture that appreciates the unconventional and absurd.

Wholesome Memes:

Wholesome memes are a reaction to the often cynical and sarcastic nature of meme culture. These memes aim to spread positivity and focus on uplifting, heartwarming, or wholesome content. Wholesome memes often feature cute animals, feel-good messages, or stories of kindness, providing a refreshing and optimistic break from more sarcastic or ironic memes.

Resurgence of Nostalgia:

Memes that evoke feelings of nostalgia have gained popularity in recent years. Memes centered around childhood memories, throwbacks to classic TV shows, movies, or toys, or references to past decades have struck a chord with online users. These memes tap into the longing for simpler times and evoke a sense of shared nostalgia among internet communities.

Meta Memes:

Meta memes, also known as “memes about memes,” have become increasingly popular. These memes often playfully reference meme culture itself, commenting on the formats, trends, and behaviors within the meme community. Meta memes reflect the self-awareness and introspection present in online communities, highlighting the collective understanding and shared humor surrounding memes.

Viral Dance Challenges:

Viral dance challenges have gained significant traction on platforms like TikTok and Instagram. These challenges typically involve learning and performing a specific dance routine, often accompanied by a popular song. Users create and share their own dance videos, contributing to the trend while showcasing their creativity and dance skills.

These meme trends are just a snapshot of the dynamic and ever-evolving nature of meme culture. As internet culture continues to evolve, new trends will emerge, reflecting the changing attitudes, humor, and trends of online communities. Memes will continue to captivate audiences with their ability to entertain, amuse, and connect people across the digital landscape.