Why Do Amish Not Use Technology


The Amish Way of Life

The Amish community is known for their unique lifestyle, rooted in faith, simplicity, and a strong sense of community. Originating from the Anabaptist movement in 16th-century Europe, the Amish have maintained traditions that emphasize separation from the modern world and a commitment to traditional values.

At the heart of the Amish way of life is the concept of “Gelassenheit,” which translates to “yieldingness” or “submission.” This principle encourages individuals to yield to God’s will and to live in harmony with nature and their fellow community members.

One of the key aspects of Amish life is the rejection of modern technology. The Amish believe that excessive reliance on technology can lead to moral decay and disrupt the community’s close-knit structure. As a result, they choose to live a simpler, more traditional lifestyle, centered around manual labor, sustainable practices, and a deep connection with nature.

Family and community are fundamental pillars of Amish life. Each community consists of several families who live in close proximity, often on neighboring farms. Daily tasks such as farming, cooking, and childcare are shared among community members, fostering a strong sense of support and unity.

Education within the Amish community is focused on practical skills and traditional values, rather than formal academic subjects. Amish children attend one-room schools, typically run by community members, where they learn essential skills like reading, writing, and arithmetic. Education is seen as a means to equip individuals for a life within the community, rather than a pursuit of worldly success.

The Amish also place great importance on preserving their cultural traditions and religious practices. They value simplicity in their clothing, which typically consists of plain, modest attire. Additionally, the Amish speak a dialect of German known as Pennsylvania Dutch, which is used in their religious services and daily conversations.

Overall, the Amish way of life is a deliberate choice to live according to deep-rooted principles and values. It is a commitment to simplicity, community, and a strong faith in God. By embracing a lifestyle characterized by manual labor, close-knit relationships, and a rejection of modern technology, the Amish community remains distinct and steadfast in their devotion to their beliefs.

The Principles of Simple Living

The Amish community highly values simplicity in all aspects of life. This concept holds immense significance within their culture, guiding their behaviors, choices, and interactions with the world around them.

Living simply means embracing a lifestyle focused on core essentials and minimizing distractions. For the Amish, this involves reducing material possessions, avoiding excess and extravagance, and prioritizing the needs of the community over individual desires.

One tangible manifestation of simple living is evident in the Amish approach to housing. Amish homes are typically modestly sized, reflecting a focus on functionality rather than grandeur. Furnishings are practical and designed to serve their intended purpose, minimizing the accumulation of unnecessary belongings.

The principle of simple living extends beyond material possessions and influences how the Amish engage with technology. By eschewing modern technology, the community avoids the distractions and complexities that come with it. Instead, they rely on manual labor and traditional techniques to meet their needs.

Another essential aspect of simple living is financial responsibility. The Amish prioritize financial stability, avoiding debt and financial burdens that can interfere with their ability to live according to their values. This approach enables them to prioritize family, community, and their commitment to God above material wealth.

Simple living allows the Amish to maintain a deeper connection to nature. By living close to the land and participating in agricultural practices, they cultivate a sense of gratitude and responsibility towards the environment. They value sustainable farming methods, which promote self-sufficiency and minimize the impact on nature.

By adhering to the principles of simple living, the Amish are able to focus on what truly matters to them: their faith, their relationships, and their commitment to their community. By avoiding material distractions and excesses, they maintain a sense of contentment and fulfillment.

In a world often characterized by a constant pursuit of more, the Amish offer an alternative way of living, centered on the essentials and finding joy in simplicity. Their commitment to simple living not only benefits their own well-being but also serves as a valuable reminder to the wider society of the importance of slowing down, practicing gratitude, and appreciating the beauty in life’s simplest pleasures.

The Importance of Community

Community is at the core of Amish life, serving as the foundation for their beliefs, practices, and daily interactions. Within the Amish community, there is a strong emphasis on collective welfare and a deep sense of belonging.

Amish communities are close-knit and tightly woven together. The members support and rely on one another, fostering a sense of unity and cooperation. The Amish believe in the principle of “Ordnung,” which is a set of unwritten rules and regulations that govern Amish life. These rules help maintain order, preserve their way of life, and promote unity within the community.

Community extends beyond immediate family members in the Amish culture. It encompasses neighbors, church members, and even fellow farmers who work together on shared tasks. This collaborative spirit strengthens bonds and creates a network of support that is essential in times of need.

One of the key benefits of a tight-knit community is the support it provides to its members. In times of illness, grief, or hardship, the Amish come together to provide emotional, physical, and financial assistance. They demonstrate a willingness to help one another without hesitation, ensuring that no one is left to bear burdens alone.

Amish communities also place great importance on social interaction and connection. Regular gatherings, such as Sunday worship services and community events, provide opportunities for members to come together, strengthen relationships, and reinforce shared values. These gatherings foster a sense of identity and belonging, reinforcing the bonds that hold the community together.

Furthermore, the Amish community serves as a support system for young people. From a young age, children are given responsibilities within the community and are taught the importance of hard work, respect, and cooperation. This sense of belonging and purpose helps shape their identity and provides guidance throughout their lives.

By prioritizing community, the Amish ensure that no individual is isolated or forgotten. They recognize the inherent value of human connection and understand that collective strength is vital for the well-being of the community as a whole.

In a world where individualism often takes precedence, the Amish highlight the significance of community bonds, demonstrating the power of unity, compassion, and shared values. Through their commitment to community, the Amish exemplify the importance of interdependence and strive for a life that is deeply enriched by meaningful relationships and a sense of belonging.

Preserving Traditions and Values

The Amish community places a strong emphasis on preserving their traditions and values, rooted in their deep religious convictions. These traditions and values serve as a guiding force, shaping their way of life and maintaining a distinct identity within a rapidly changing world.

Religion is at the core of Amish life, and it provides the foundation for their traditions and values. The Amish are a deeply religious community, guided by the teachings of Jesus Christ and the Bible. They believe in living a life that is separate from the world and strive to uphold their religious principles in every aspect of their daily lives.

One of the primary ways the Amish preserve their traditions is through the passing down of oral history and cultural practices from one generation to the next. From childhood, Amish children are taught the importance of their traditions, values, and heritage, ensuring that the customs and beliefs are carried on for future generations.

Language and dress are significant aspects of Amish tradition and serve as outward expressions of their identity. The use of Pennsylvania Dutch, a dialect of German, in religious services and daily conversations helps to preserve their unique culture and heritage. Likewise, their distinct dress, characterized by plain and modest clothing, distinguishes them from the outside world and serves as a visual representation of their commitment to simplicity and humility.

The Amish also actively resist the influence of modern society, as they believe it can lead to moral decay and compromise their values. They carefully evaluate and selectively adopt elements from the outside world that align with their principles, while remaining steadfast in their commitment to preserving their core traditions and values.

Furthermore, strong community connections play a crucial role in preserving Amish traditions and values. As community members work together, share meals, and worship together, they reinforce their shared beliefs and practices. The close-knit nature of Amish communities serves as a support system, actively nurturing and upholding their traditions and values.

Preserving traditions and values not only strengthens Amish identity but also provides a sense of stability and continuity in an ever-changing world. By adhering to their customs and beliefs, the Amish find strength and purpose, deepening their connection to their faith, community, and ancestral heritage.

Through their commitment to preserving traditions and values, the Amish serve as a reminder of the importance of heritage and the need to maintain cultural practices in an increasingly globalized society. They demonstrate that a steadfast dedication to one’s beliefs and traditions can provide a strong sense of identity and purpose, even in the face of societal pressures and modernization.

The Dangers of Technology

One of the key reasons why the Amish choose to live without modern technology is their belief in the dangers it presents. While technology has undoubtedly brought numerous advancements and conveniences to society, the Amish have recognized the potential negative consequences that come with such progress.

The Amish hold the view that an overreliance on technology can have detrimental effects on both individuals and communities. They believe that excessive exposure to technology can lead to a sense of disconnection from nature, other people, and even oneself. The constant distractions and instant gratification that technology provides can diminish the ability to focus on meaningful relationships and tasks.

Technology can also introduce materialism and consumerism into the fabric of society. The Amish, with their focus on simplicity, value contentment and reject the idea that happiness can be found solely through the acquisition of material possessions. They strive to maintain a sense of gratitude for what they have and value relationships and experiences over material wealth.

Another concern for the Amish is the potential erosion of community and family values caused by technology. With the rise of social media, online activities, and virtual interactions, the Amish fear that personal connections and face-to-face communication may be undermined. They prioritize spending quality time with family, engaging in shared activities, and maintaining a strong sense of community, which they believe is threatened by technology’s isolating effects.

Moreover, the Amish recognize that technology carries ethical implications and moral risks. The instant availability of information and widespread access to the internet can expose individuals, particularly the young, to harmful or inappropriate content that may clash with their deeply held religious beliefs. They may also be susceptible to the negative influence of mainstream culture, which contradicts their values of simplicity, humility, and separation from the world.

By consciously choosing to live without modern technology, the Amish avoid the potential pitfalls and dangers they believe it poses. With a focus on fostering meaningful relationships, tending to the land, and maintaining their religious and cultural heritage, the Amish embrace an alternative lifestyle that encourages a deeper connection to the world around them and a stronger sense of community.

Through their rejection of modern technology, the Amish serve as a reminder to society of the potential dangers and pitfalls that exist in an always-connected, technologically advanced world. They encourage us to critically assess the impact of technology on our lives, relationships, values, and well-being.

Keeping a Focus on Family

The Amish community places a strong emphasis on the importance of family bonds and relationships. They view the family unit as the cornerstone of their society and prioritize maintaining strong connections within it.

For the Amish, family is not limited to immediate relatives but extends to the wider community and church members. Family gatherings, shared meals, and communal activities are integral to their way of life, providing opportunities to strengthen ties and reinforce their shared values.

The Amish value the role of parents as the primary teachers and caregivers within the family. They believe that a strong family foundation is crucial for the upbringing of children, shaping their character and instilling values that will guide them throughout their lives. Amish parents prioritize spending quality time with their children, engaging in work, play, and religious activities together.

Amish families commonly live close to one another, often on neighboring farms or within the same community. This proximity fosters a sense of interdependence and mutual support. The concept of “Barn Raisings,” in which community members come together to construct or repair a barn, exemplifies the collaborative spirit and willingness to assist one another that characterizes Amish family and community life.

Technology and excessive outside influences can disrupt family dynamics and take focus away from genuine connections. The Amish prioritize maintaining strong relationships by living without modern technology, which can often create distractions and isolation within the family unit. Without the constant pull of screens and devices, they are able to focus on face-to-face interactions, shared activities, and fostering a deeper sense of connection.

Additionally, Amish traditions and values, including simplicity, humility, and community, are passed down through generations within the family. Older family members play a significant role in shaping the character and values of younger generations by sharing oral history, wisdom, and their own experiences. This intergenerational exchange serves to maintain the Amish way of life and reinforce their commitment to family and community.

The Amish approach to family extends beyond the nuclear unit, as they prioritize caring for elderly or infirm family members within the home. They believe in honoring and respecting their elders, valuing their wisdom and experience. Multi-generational households offer support and companionship, allowing older family members to age gracefully within the loving embrace of their family.

By keeping a focus on family, the Amish prioritize meaningful connections and the well-being of their loved ones. They demonstrate the value of close-knit relationships, interdependence, and the commitment to nurturing a strong family unit.

In a world that often places emphasis on individualism and self-centeredness, the Amish serve as a reminder of the enduring strength and importance of family bonds. They encourage us to prioritize our loved ones and invest in the relationships that sustain us, ultimately fostering a sense of belonging, love, and support that enriches our lives.

Minimalism and Self-Sufficiency

Minimalism and self-sufficiency are fundamental principles within the Amish way of life. These concepts guide their choices and lifestyles, allowing them to live in harmony with nature, prioritize essential needs, and reduce reliance on external systems.

The Amish practice minimalism by intentionally living with fewer material possessions. They value a simple and uncluttered lifestyle, focusing on the essentials rather than accumulating unnecessary belongings. This intentional approach to material goods helps them avoid the pitfalls of consumerism and maintain a sense of contentment and gratitude for what they have.

Minimalism for the Amish extends beyond material possessions to include simplicity in daily activities and habits. They strive to avoid the busyness and excesses of modern life, allowing them to focus on what truly matters: their faith, family, community, and personal growth.

Self-sufficiency is another key aspect of the Amish way of life. By relying on their own labor and resources, they aim to reduce dependence on external systems and maintain a sense of autonomy. They believe in utilizing sustainable practices and traditional skills to meet their needs, such as farming, woodworking, and food preservation.

Amish communities often have their own agricultural enterprises, with each family contributing to the overall self-sufficiency of the community. They emphasize the importance of hard work, thriftiness, and resourcefulness, and they actively pass down these skills and knowledge to future generations.

By being self-sufficient, the Amish minimize their impact on the environment, promoting sustainability and reducing waste. They value simplicity, making do with what they have and avoiding excesses that can strain resources or contribute to pollution.

Minimalism and self-sufficiency go hand in hand within the Amish way of life. By living with less and being self-sufficient, they cultivate a sense of autonomy, resilience, and environmental stewardship. They prioritize simplicity and sustainability over convenience and excess, striving for a harmonious coexistence with the natural world.

These practices also foster a strong sense of satisfaction and fulfillment. By relying on their own labor and resourcefulness, the Amish experience a deep sense of accomplishment and pride in their ability to provide for themselves and their community.

Minimalism and self-sufficiency are not only practical aspects of the Amish lifestyle but also serve as nurturing pathways to spiritual growth and a stronger sense of identity. By intentionally embracing these principles, the Amish lead lives that are rooted in simplicity, self-reliance, and mindfulness.

The Amish challenge us to examine our own consumption patterns, consider the impact of our choices on the environment and our overall well-being, and explore the rewards of living with less and emphasizing self-sufficiency. Their example encourages us to find balance in a world defined by excess and to embrace simplicity and sustainability as pathways to a more meaningful and fulfilled life.

Embracing a Slower Pace of Life

The Amish community is known for their deliberate choice to embrace a slower pace of life, intentionally stepping away from the fast-paced nature of the modern world. They believe that by slowing down, they can cultivate a deeper sense of connection, contentment, and fulfillment.

The Amish value the sanctity of time and prioritize quality over quantity. They believe that rushing through life and constantly seeking productivity can detract from the beauty and richness of everyday experiences. By intentionally slowing down, they have the opportunity to fully engage with their surroundings, appreciate nature, and savor the moments spent with loved ones.

In their daily routine, the Amish avoid the reliance on shortcuts and conveniences that can lead to a constant rush. Daily tasks, such as cooking, cleaning, and even transportation, are approached with an unrushed mindset. They value the process over efficiency, understanding that taking the time to carry out tasks with care and attention can lead to a more meaningful and fulfilling outcome.

By embracing a slower pace of life, the Amish have the opportunity to engage in leisure activities that promote rest and enjoyment. They prioritize spending time with family, participating in communal events, and pursuing hobbies and interests that align with their values. This intentional focus on leisure time fosters a sense of balance, recharge, and overall well-being.

Slowing down also provides the space for reflection, introspection, and spiritual growth. The Amish set aside time for prayer, reading scripture, and participating in religious services, fostering a deeper connection with their faith and promoting a more centered way of life.

The Amish lifestyle embraces the natural rhythms of the seasons and agricultural cycles. Farming and working with the land require patience and an understanding of the importance of timing. They observe the seasons, respecting the cycles of growth, and valuing the connection to nature that a slower pace allows.

By intentionally living at a slower pace, the Amish counteract the pressures of a modern culture that often values productivity and constant busyness. They remind us of the importance of finding balance, embracing moments of rest and reflection, and appreciating the simple joys of life that may be overlooked in the pursuit of a fast-paced existence.

The Amish challenge us to evaluate our own lives and consider how a slower pace may benefit our well-being. They demonstrate that by intentionally slowing down, we can cultivate a deeper sense of meaning, connection, and gratitude for the moments that truly matter.

In a world dominated by instant gratification and constant stimulation, the Amish serve as a reminder to embrace a slower pace of life, appreciating the present moment and nurturing the relationships, experiences, and values that bring true fulfillment.

Honoring God’s Will

At the heart of the Amish way of life is the unwavering belief in honoring God’s will. The Amish prioritize their faith and strive to align every aspect of their lives with their religious convictions. They believe that by living in accordance with God’s will, they can lead a purposeful and fulfilling life.

The Amish interpret the Bible as a direct guide for their daily lives, examining its teachings and seeking to apply them in their actions and decisions. They view their commitment to God’s will as a lifelong journey, and their faith serves as the guiding force in all aspects of their lives.

Honoring God’s will involves living a life of simplicity, humility, and obedience. The Amish believe in practicing the virtues of patience, forgiveness, and selflessness, striving to live in harmony with others and to embrace a life of service to their community.

For the Amish, honoring God’s will means rejecting the temptations and distractions of the modern world. They believe that excessive wealth, materialism, and individualism can divert them from a closer relationship with God and lead to spiritual emptiness. By embracing a simpler way of life, they focus on what they perceive to be God’s priorities: faith, family, community, and stewardship of the Earth.

The Amish see every aspect of their lives as an opportunity to honor God’s will. This includes their work, relationships, and interactions with others. They view their vocation as a calling from God and strive to fulfill their duties with integrity, diligence, and a spirit of service.

Honoring God’s will also encompasses the importance of the Amish church community. Participation in religious services, communion, and mutual support are central to their faith. By actively engaging in their church community, they strengthen their spiritual connection and affirm their commitment to living according to God’s will.

In making decisions, the Amish seek guidance through prayer, seeking God’s wisdom and discernment. They value the wisdom of their church leaders and community elders. By aligning their choices with God’s will, they believe they can find peace, purpose, and ultimately, the eternal reward.

The Amish understand that honoring God’s will requires sacrifice and a steadfast commitment to their beliefs. They may face challenges and opposition from the outside world, but they remain faithful to their principles and trust in God’s guidance and providence.

Through their unwavering devotion to honoring God’s will, the Amish offer a powerful example of living in alignment with deeply-held beliefs. Their consistent commitment to their faith and the pursuit of a life that reflects God’s teachings serve as an inspiration, challenging us to evaluate our own lives and consider how we can honor God’s will in our daily actions and choices.

A Connection to Nature

The Amish community holds a deep reverence for nature and strives to maintain a strong connection with the natural world. They believe in the inherent goodness of God’s creation and seek to cultivate a harmonious relationship with the environment around them.

Living in agricultural communities, the Amish maintain a close bond with the land. They engage in farming practices that prioritize sustainability, working in harmony with nature and respecting the cycles of the seasons. They value the importance of responsible stewardship, recognizing that they have a duty to care for and preserve the land for future generations.

By spending significant amounts of time outdoors, the Amish develop a profound understanding of the rhythms and cycles of nature. They observe changes in weather patterns, the growth of crops, and the behavior of animals, gaining a deep appreciation for the intricate beauty and complexity of the natural world.

The Amish embrace the opportunity to explore and enjoy the beauty of nature through leisure activities. They engage in outdoor pursuits such as fishing, hiking, and horseback riding, allowing them to connect with the natural environment and experience a sense of serenity and awe.

Furthermore, the Amish believe that the tranquility and beauty of nature provide an ideal backdrop for spiritual reflection. They frequently seek solace in the outdoors, finding peace, clarity, and a stronger connection to God in the midst of the natural world. Nature serves as a reminder of God’s presence and power, allowing them to experience a deeper sense of spirituality.

The Amish prioritize simplicity in their lifestyle, which includes a conscious effort to minimize their impact on the environment. They avoid excessive consumption, practice resource conservation, and strive to live sustainably. By embracing these principles, they reduce waste, minimize pollution, and demonstrate a deep concern for the well-being of the Earth.

Living in harmony with nature also allows the Amish to experience a sense of humility and gratitude. They recognize that they are dependent on the Earth’s resources and understand the importance of working cooperatively with creation for their sustenance. This gratitude is expressed through their commitment to sustainable agricultural practices and a deep respect for all forms of life.

In an era dominated by urbanization and a disconnection from the natural world, the Amish remind us of the intrinsic value and beauty of nature. They challenge us to reevaluate our relationship with the environment and consider how we can cultivate a deeper connection, promote sustainability, and live in harmony with the Earth.

Through their reverence for nature and intentional commitment to environmental stewardship, the Amish provide an inspiring example for others. They demonstrate that a renewed connection to the natural world can bring solace, spiritual enrichment, and a heightened sense of responsibility to care for the Earth that sustains us all.

Security and Privacy Concerns

The Amish community prioritizes security and privacy, believing that these values are essential for maintaining the integrity of their way of life. With a deep-seated mistrust of the outside world and a desire to safeguard their traditions, the Amish take deliberate measures to protect their community’s security and maintain their privacy.

One significant aspect of security for the Amish is the protection of their physical safety. They strive to create a safe environment for their families and ensure the well-being of their community members. The close-knit nature of Amish communities, with everyone watching out for each other, acts as an extra layer of security and fosters a sense of trust and safety within their tightly woven networks.

Privacy is highly valued in Amish culture. The Amish seek to shield their personal lives from unnecessary outside scrutiny. They tend to live in rural areas, often surrounded by farmland and away from urban centers, which affords them greater privacy and seclusion.

The use of limited technology plays a crucial role in maintaining the Amish community’s privacy. The absence of modern conveniences, such as smartphones and the internet, minimizes the risk of intrusion and surveillance. By avoiding digital trails and electronic communication, they reduce the possibility of compromising their privacy, keeping their personal information within the confines of their community.

Additionally, the Amish prioritize face-to-face communication over digital means, believing that direct personal interaction strengthens their social bonds and promotes a sense of intimacy among community members.

Amish homes, often located on large properties, are designed to provide privacy. The layout of their houses reflects their desire for separate spaces for various activities, ensuring that each family can maintain their personal boundaries and privacy within their households.

The Amish also rely on their strong sense of community to uphold their security and privacy. Their adherence to strict social norms and expectations acts as a form of self-regulation, ensuring that individuals maintain the integrity of the community and prioritize its well-being over personal interests.

While the Amish mindset towards security and privacy may seem strict to outsiders, it serves as a protective shield for their traditions and values. By maintaining tight-knit communities that are resistant to outside influence, they safeguard their way of life, ensuring that their faith and cultural practices remain intact for future generations.

Through their commitment to security and privacy, the Amish demonstrate the importance of protecting the sanctity of their community and preserving their distinct identity. Their deliberate measures serve as a reminder of the significance of maintaining personal boundaries, privacy, and security in an era marked by increasing digital interconnectedness and potential threats to individual and communal well-being.

The Role of Faith in the Amish Lifestyle

Faith is the cornerstone of the Amish way of life and permeates every aspect of their beliefs, traditions, and values. The Amish community is deeply religious, guided by a strong commitment to their faith and the teachings of Jesus Christ as interpreted through the Bible.

Amish faith plays a central role in the decision-making process of individuals and the collective community. It serves as a guiding force, shaping their morals, ethics, and behaviors. The Amish believe that their faith provides them with a blueprint for living a righteous and purposeful life grounded in their relationship with God.

The Amish community practices Anabaptism, a form of Christianity that emphasizes adult baptism and voluntary commitment to the church. Amish baptism occurs in early adulthood, reflecting a personal choice to dedicate oneself to living a life that exemplifies Amish values and the teachings of Jesus.

Amish worship services are held in private homes or meetinghouses, conducted in their distinctive dialect of Pennsylvania Dutch. These services are characterized by simplicity, communal singing, heartfelt prayers, and the reading of scripture. The Amish value the importance of worshiping together as a community and draw strength from the shared expression of their faith.

Their faith encourages humility, simplicity, and a commitment to living separate from the world. The Amish believe in a life of nonviolence, forgiveness, and the pursuit of peace. They seek to emulate Jesus’ teachings in their daily interactions, prioritizing love, compassion, and selflessness.

Amish faith also promotes community, with the belief that collective worship, mutual support, and shared values strengthen their commitment to God. The church community plays a vital role in their lives and is an integral part of their social structure and decision-making process. Amish church leaders, known as bishops and ministers, are elected from within the community and provide spiritual guidance and pastoral care.

Amish faith extends beyond church services, influencing their education, work ethic, family life, and relationship with the natural world. Their religious beliefs shape their perspectives on education, emphasizing the importance of practical skills, moral instruction, and spiritual development within their own schools.

The Amish view their way of life as a reflection of their faith and a demonstration of their commitment to God. They see their separation from modern society and the intentional rejection of certain technologies as an act of obedience to God’s commandments and a means of preserving their distinctive identity.

By embracing their faith, the Amish find strength, purpose, and guidance in navigating the complexities of life. Their unwavering commitment to their religious principles serves as a testament to the power of faith and its role in shaping the Amish way of life.

The Amish challenge us to consider the role of faith in our own lives and the impact it can have on our values, relationships, and daily choices. They inspire us to reflect on our spirituality, prioritize our relationship with God, and seek to live a life that aligns with our deepest beliefs and convictions.