How To Add Emotes To Twitch


What Are Emotes on Twitch

Twitch emotes are a popular feature of the streaming platform that enable streamers and viewers to express themselves through custom digital icons. These emotes, also known as emoticons or emojis, are used to convey various emotions, reactions, and inside jokes within the Twitch community.

Emotes on Twitch play a significant role in creating a sense of community and fostering engagement between streamers and their viewers. They enable streamers to personalize their channels by designing and using custom emotes that resonate with their brand and personality. Viewers, on the other hand, can use emotes to interact with the streamer and fellow viewers, expressing their reactions to the content being streamed.

Emotes can be used in Twitch chat both by typing their associated keywords or by clicking on the emote icon in the emote picker. This allows users to easily express themselves and participate in conversations without having to type out lengthy messages.

It’s worth noting that Twitch emotes have become a significant part of Twitch culture, and many well-known emotes have gained widespread recognition and popularity. From the classic Kappa emote, which signifies sarcasm or trolling, to the PogChamp emote, used to express excitement or awe, these emotes have become iconic symbols within the Twitch community.

Furthermore, Twitch also has emote modifiers, such as “BetterTTV” and “FrankerFaceZ,” that add additional emotes to enhance the chat experience. These emote modifiers allow for even more emote customization and availability for both streamers and viewers.

Overall, emotes on Twitch serve as a visual language that streamers and viewers utilize to express themselves, foster community interaction, and create a shared experience within the Twitch ecosystem. They are a fun and integral part of the streaming community and contribute to the unique culture that Twitch has cultivated over the years.

Twitch Emote Guidelines

When creating and using emotes on Twitch, it is important to follow certain guidelines set by Twitch to ensure a positive and inclusive community experience. These guidelines aim to maintain a respectful and enjoyable environment for all users. Here are some key guidelines to keep in mind:

1. Respect Twitch’s Terms of Service: All emotes must comply with Twitch’s Terms of Service. This means they should not contain any explicit, offensive, or illegal content. Emotes should also not promote hate speech, harassment, or discrimination.

2. Follow Twitch’s Community Guidelines: Emotes should adhere to Twitch’s Community Guidelines, which emphasize respect, inclusivity, and appropriate behavior. This means avoiding emotes that may be considered harassing, sexually explicit, or violent.

3. Use Original Content: Emotes should be original and created by you or by artists with the necessary permissions to use their art. Using copyrighted material without permission is a violation of Twitch’s guidelines. If using commissioned art, ensure that you have the proper rights for its use as an emote.

4. Maintain Appropriate Sizes: Twitch has specific size requirements for emotes. Emotes should be in square dimensions, ranging from 28×28 pixels to 112×112 pixels. It is essential to follow these size guidelines to ensure clear and recognizable emote designs.

5. Consider Global Context: While emotes can be specific to a streamer’s community, it is important to consider how they may be interpreted by viewers from different backgrounds. Emotes should aim for inclusivity and avoid cultural or regional references that may be misunderstood or offensive to certain communities.

6. Avoid Misleading Emotes: Emotes should accurately represent the intended emotion or reaction. They should not be deceptive, misleading, or confusing to viewers. Clear and recognizable emotes contribute to a more effective and engaging communication experience within Twitch chat.

7. Keep Emotes Relevant: Emotes should align with the content and theme of your stream. Creating emotes that resonate with your community and reflect your brand or personality can help strengthen viewer engagement and recognition.

8. Stay Updated with Twitch Guidelines: Twitch periodically updates its emote guidelines, so it’s crucial to stay informed about any changes or clarifications. Regularly checking for updates ensures that your emotes remain compliant and relevant.

By following these Twitch emote guidelines, both streamers and viewers can contribute to a positive and enjoyable environment within the Twitch community. Emotes are a creative and expressive way to communicate, and adhering to these guidelines helps foster a respectful and inclusive streaming experience for everyone.

Creating Emotes for Twitch

Creating custom emotes for Twitch allows streamers to personalize their channels and engage with their viewers in a unique and expressive way. Here are the key steps to follow when creating emotes for Twitch:

1. Define Your Emote Concept: Start by brainstorming ideas for emote concepts that align with your brand or channel theme. Consider the emotions or reactions you want to convey through your emotes, as well as any inside jokes or recurring themes within your community.

2. Hire an Artist or Create Your Own: You have the option to either hire a freelance artist or create the emotes yourself if you have design skills. Collaborate with the artist to bring your emote concepts to life or use graphic design software to create them yourself.

3. Consider the Size and Style: Keep in mind that Twitch emotes need to be in square dimensions and range from 28×28 pixels to 112×112 pixels. Design your emotes with legibility in mind, ensuring that they are clear and recognizable even at smaller sizes.

4. Use Expressive Facial Expressions: Emotes primarily rely on facial expressions to convey emotions or reactions. Focus on creating expressive and easily identifiable facial features to make your emotes visually appealing and impactful.

5. Use Bold and Vibrant Colors: Emotes should catch the viewer’s attention and be easily distinguishable in Twitch chat. Consider using bold and vibrant colors to make your emotes stand out and grab the viewer’s eye.

6. Test and Iterate: Once you have created your emotes, test them in the Twitch chat or get feedback from your community to ensure that they are effectively conveying the intended emotions or reactions. Make adjustments as needed to improve their impact.

7. Commission Emotes: If you’re not confident in your design skills or prefer a professional touch, you can commission emotes from artists who specialize in Twitch emote creation. Platforms like Fiverr or social media groups dedicated to emote artists can help you connect with talented designers.

8. Ensure Consistency: Aim for consistency in your emote designs to create a cohesive and recognizable visual identity for your channel. This helps viewers associate the emotes with your brand and makes them more likely to use and engage with them.

Remember, creating emotes is an ongoing process. As your channel evolves and your community grows, you may want to update or add new emotes to reflect those changes. Emotes are a powerful tool for streamer-viewer interaction, allowing you to communicate non-verbally and create a stronger sense of community within your Twitch channel.

Image Requirements for Twitch Emotes

When creating emotes for Twitch, it’s crucial to adhere to certain image requirements to ensure that your emotes are properly displayed and meet Twitch’s guidelines. Here are the key image requirements to consider:

1. Size and Dimensions: Emotes on Twitch should be in square dimensions and can range from 28×28 pixels to 112×112 pixels. It’s essential to design emotes within these size limits to ensure clarity, legibility, and optimal display on various devices.

2. File Format: Twitch accepts emotes in PNG format with a transparent background. PNG files preserve image quality and allow for transparent backgrounds, enabling emotes to blend seamlessly into Twitch chat and overlay on top of other messages.

3. File Size: The file size of each emote should not exceed 25kb to ensure swift loading times and minimize bandwidth usage. Optimizing the file size without compromising the quality of the emote is crucial for a smooth viewing experience for your audience.

4. Clarity and Visibility: Emotes should be designed with high contrast and clear lines to ensure visibility, even at smaller sizes. Avoid intricate details that may get lost when viewed as a small emote, and focus on creating bold, recognizable features that are easily distinguishable in Twitch chat.

5. Avoid Copyrighted Material: Ensure that your emotes do not infringe on any copyright laws. It’s important to use original artwork, commissioned artwork with proper rights, or artwork with appropriate licenses. Using copyrighted material without permission can result in penalties and the removal of your emotes.

6. Emote Thumbnails: Twitch requires a separate 300×300 pixel thumbnail image to represent each emote. The thumbnail serves as a preview image and should accurately represent the emote itself. It’s important to ensure that the thumbnail is clear and visually appealing to entice viewers to use the emote.

7. Emote Expression: Emotes on Twitch should effectively convey the desired emotion or reaction. The facial expression should be prominent and easily understandable, allowing viewers to quickly grasp the intended meaning of the emote.

8. Consistency and Branding: Maintain consistency in your emote designs to create a cohesive and recognizable brand identity. Emotes should align with your channel’s theme and reflect your personality or brand to strengthen viewer engagement and recognition.

By following these image requirements for Twitch emotes, you can create high-quality and visually appealing emotes that comply with Twitch’s guidelines. Remember to test your emotes in Twitch chat and gather feedback from your community to ensure that they meet viewer expectations and enhance the interactive experience in your channel.

Uploading Emotes to Twitch

Once you have created your emotes, the next step is to upload them to Twitch so that you and your viewers can start using them in chat. Follow these steps to successfully upload emotes to Twitch:

1. Go to the Emote Settings: Log in to your Twitch account and navigate to the Creator Dashboard. From the dashboard, click on “Settings” and then select “Emotes” from the side menu. This will take you to the emote settings page.

2. Select Emote Tier: Twitch offers different tiers of emotes based on your partnership status. Choose the tier (e.g., Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3) for each emote you want to upload. Selecting the appropriate tier determines which subscribers can use the emote.

3. Upload Emote Images: Click on the box labeled “Choose File” or “Upload Emote” and select the emote image file from your computer. Ensure that the emote image meets Twitch’s image requirements, including size, format, transparency, and file size.

4. Set Emote Prefix: Every emote requires a unique prefix that must be entered in the “Emote Prefix” field. The prefix is a keyword or phrase that users will enter in chat to activate the emote. It should be short, memorable, and related to the emote’s purpose or emotion.

5. Review Emote Details: Provide a name for your emote that accurately represents its content or purpose. Additionally, you have the option to add an emote description that provides more context or information about the emote. Review all the details to ensure accuracy.

6. Submit for Review: Once you have filled in the required information, click on the “Submit for Review” button. Twitch will review your emotes for compliance with their guidelines. The review process typically takes a few business days.

7. Monitor Emote Status: After submitting your emotes, you can monitor their status on the emote settings page. You will see whether they are pending, approved, or rejected. If any emotes are rejected, Twitch will provide reasons for the rejection so you can make necessary modifications.

8. Make Adjustments if Needed: If any of your emotes are rejected, make the appropriate adjustments according to Twitch’s guidelines and resubmit them for review. Pay attention to the reasons for rejection and ensure all requirements are met before resubmission.

9. Emotes Go Live: Once your emotes are approved, they will go live on your Twitch channel. You and your subscribers can start using them in chat by typing the emote prefix associated with each emote. Encourage your viewers to use your emotes to foster community engagement and expression.

Remember to monitor viewer feedback and engagement with your emotes, and consider regularly updating or adding new emotes to keep your channel fresh and exciting. Uploading emotes to Twitch allows you to create a unique visual language for your community, enhancing the overall streaming experience.

Emote Sizes and Formats

When creating emotes for Twitch, it’s important to understand the sizes and formats that Twitch supports to ensure that your emotes are displayed properly. Here are the key aspects to consider regarding emote sizes and formats:

1. Emote Sizes: Twitch allows emotes to have sizes ranging from 28×28 pixels to 112×112 pixels. It’s crucial to design your emotes within these dimensions to ensure clear visibility and recognition, even at smaller sizes. Test your emotes at different sizes to ensure they remain distinct and legible.

2. File Formats: Twitch supports PNG as the recommended file format for emotes. PNG files preserve image quality and allow for transparent backgrounds, making them ideal for emotes that need to blend into Twitch chat seamlessly.

3. Transparency: Emotes should have a transparent background, allowing them to integrate seamlessly with Twitch chat and overlay on top of other messages. Use transparency to your advantage by removing unnecessary backgrounds or elements that can distract from the emote’s main design.

4. File Size: Twitch imposes a maximum file size limit of 25kb for each emote. It’s important to keep your emote files optimized to meet this requirement. Compressing your emote files can help reduce their size without significant loss of quality.

5. Visual Clarity: Emotes should be designed to maintain clarity and legibility, even at smaller sizes. Use bold and distinct features to ensure that the emote’s intended expression or reaction is easily recognizable. Avoid intricate details that can be difficult to discern when viewed at a smaller scale.

6. Thumbnail Images: Twitch requires separate 300×300 pixel thumbnail images for each emote. These thumbnails provide a preview of the emote and are displayed in menus and emote libraries. Design thumbnail images that accurately represent your emotes and entice viewers to use them.

7. Consistency: It’s important to maintain consistency in the visual style and theme of your emotes. Emotes should follow a cohesive design language, making them easily recognizable as part of your channel’s brand. This consistency helps to strengthen viewer engagement and association with your content.

8. Test and Iterate: Before finalizing your emotes and making them available for use, test them at various sizes and monitor their appearance in Twitch chat. Gather feedback from your community to ensure that the emotes effectively convey the desired emotions or reactions.

By following the recommended emote sizes and formats, you can create visually appealing and properly displayed emotes that enhance viewer engagement and communication within your Twitch community. Regularly assess how your emotes appear in different contexts and make any necessary adjustments to maintain their clarity and impact.

Setting Emote Tiers on Twitch

When uploading emotes to Twitch, you have the option to assign different emote tiers to determine which subscribers can access and use them. Emote tiers allow you to provide exclusive emotes as incentives for higher-tier subscribers. Here’s a step-by-step guide on setting emote tiers on Twitch:

1. Understand Twitch Affiliate and Partner Requirements: To enable emote tiers, you must meet specific requirements to become a Twitch Affiliate or Partner. These requirements include meeting certain streaming criteria and building a dedicated viewer base. Once you have achieved Affiliate or Partner status, you can access the emote tier feature.

2. Determine the Number of Tiers: Decide how many emote tiers you want to offer to your subscribers. Twitch currently allows for three tiers: Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3. Each tier provides an opportunity to offer different sets of emotes to reward subscribers at higher levels of support.

3. Assign Emotes to Tiers: Choose which emotes you want to associate with each emote tier. Higher-tier subscribers will have access to the emotes from their own tier as well as the emotes from lower tiers. For example, Tier 2 subscribers will have access to Tier 1 emotes in addition to the Tier 2 emotes.

4. Consider Subscriber Benefits: It’s essential to think about the incentives you want to provide for higher-tier subscribers. Offering unique or exclusive emotes to higher-tier subscribers can be a compelling incentive for viewers to upgrade their subscription level and support your channel at a higher tier.

5. Subscriber Emote Slots: Each emote tier has a specific number of slots available for emotes. Twitch provides default slots, but as you progress and unlock more emote slots, you can assign additional emotes to higher tiers. It’s important to manage your emote inventory and plan which emotes are assigned to each tier accordingly.

6. Communicate Subscriber Benefits: Let your community know about the emote tiers available and the benefits associated with each tier. Highlight the unique emotes and privileges that subscribers will receive at higher tiers, encouraging them to consider upgrading their subscription to gain access to these exclusive emotes.

7. Regularly Review and Update: As your channel grows and your subscriber base evolves, periodically review and update your emote tiers. Analyze subscriber engagement and feedback to determine if any adjustments or additions to emote tiers are necessary to better cater to the needs and interests of your community.

8. Emote Tier Expansion: As you progress on Twitch and achieve higher status, such as moving from Affiliate to Partner, you may unlock additional emote tier slots. Pay attention to milestone achievements and take advantage of these opportunities to expand your emote offerings and provide more exclusive content to your subscribers.

Setting emote tiers on Twitch allows you to provide special privileges, such as unique emotes, to subscribers at higher support levels. By strategically assigning emotes and promoting the benefits of each tier, you can encourage viewer engagement, foster community support, and create a rewarding experience for your subscribers.

Managing Emotes on Twitch

Once you have uploaded emotes to Twitch, it’s important to effectively manage them to maintain a cohesive and engaging experience for your viewers. Here are the key steps for managing your emotes on Twitch:

1. Emote Dashboard: Access the Emote Dashboard within the Twitch Creator Dashboard to manage your emotes. This is where you can review, update, and make changes to your emotes.

2. Removing and Replacing Emotes: If you decide to remove or replace specific emotes, navigate to the Emote Dashboard and select the emote you wish to modify. From there, you can remove the emote entirely or replace it with a new image that meets Twitch’s guidelines.

3. Emote Settings: In the Emote Dashboard, you have the option to modify emote settings such as emote prefix, tier assignments, and description. Make sure to regularly review and adjust these settings to keep them up to date with your channel’s needs.

4. Subscriber Feedback: Pay attention to feedback from your subscribers regarding your emotes. Monitor chat and engage with your community to understand which emotes are well-received and which may need improvement or replacement. Actively soliciting feedback can help refine your emote offerings.

5. Adding New Emotes: As your channel grows, you may want to add new emotes to engage your community further. Determine the emote concepts based on user feedback, recurring inside jokes, or new branding initiatives. Ensure that new emotes align with Twitch’s emote guidelines.

6. Coordinating with Designers: If you work with artists or designers to create your emotes, maintain open communication with them. Regularly update them on any changes or new emote concepts you have in mind and collaborate to bring your ideas to life.

7. Seasonal or Event-Based Emotes: Consider creating temporary emotes for specific events, holidays, or promotions to further engage your community. These emotes can add a sense of excitement and exclusivity to your channel.

8. Analyze Emote Usage: Use Twitch’s analytics tools to track emote usage and engagement. Identify which emotes are frequently used and enjoyed by your community, allowing you to optimize your emote strategy and create new emotes that align with viewer preferences.

9. Emote Evolution: Emotes should evolve alongside your channel’s growth. Revisit your emote lineup periodically to assess whether any emotes need updating or retiring. This allows you to refresh your emote library and keep it relevant to your community’s changing dynamics.

By effectively managing your emotes on Twitch, you can create a dynamic and engaging emote experience for your viewers. Stay connected with your community, actively seek feedback, and adapt your emote strategy to ensure that your emotes continue to resonate with your audience.

Reviewing Emote Status on Twitch

Once you have submitted emotes for review on Twitch, it is important to regularly review and monitor their status. Understanding the different statuses and taking appropriate actions ensures that your emotes are properly displayed and compliant with Twitch’s guidelines. Here’s how you can review the status of your emotes on Twitch:

1. Emote Review Process: After submitting your emotes for review, Twitch will assess them to ensure they meet the platform’s guidelines. The review process typically takes a few business days, during which Twitch evaluates the emotes for factors such as content appropriateness and compliance with size and format requirements.

2. Reviewing Emote Status: In the Emote Dashboard within the Twitch Creator Dashboard, you can review the status of each submitted emote. Emotes will have one of the following statuses: pending, approved, or rejected.

3. Pending Emotes: Pending emotes are under review by Twitch. During this stage, it’s important to exercise patience and allow Twitch time to assess the emotes. Emote reviews are conducted in the order they are received, so the timing may vary.

4. Approved Emotes: If your emote is approved, it means it has met all of Twitch’s guidelines and is now available for use by your subscribers. Approved emotes will be live on your channel, and you can start using them in chat by typing the designated emote prefix.

5. Rejected Emotes: If an emote is rejected, Twitch will provide reasons for the rejection. Reasons can include violation of Twitch’s guidelines, improper sizing or file format, or concerns regarding the content. Twitch provides feedback to help you understand why the emote was rejected and how you can address the issues.

6. Modifying Rejected Emotes: If an emote is rejected, it is important to review the feedback provided by Twitch and make the necessary modifications. Adjust the emote according to the given guidelines and resubmit it for another review. Address all concerns raised by Twitch to increase the chances of approval.

7. Emote Re-Review: After making modifications to a rejected emote, submit it for re-review. The re-review process typically takes less time than the initial review. During this stage, Twitch will reassess the emote to ensure that the necessary changes have been made and that the emote now complies with the platform’s guidelines.

8. Compliance with Updates: Stay updated with changes to Twitch’s emote guidelines. As Twitch evolves, their guidelines may be adjusted or revised. Regularly check for updates and review the status of your existing emotes to ensure compliance with any new requirements.

By actively reviewing the status of your emotes on Twitch, you can stay informed about their progress and ensure compliance with Twitch’s guidelines. Regularly monitoring and addressing any issues or rejections helps maintain a positive and engaging experience for your channel’s subscribers.

Troubleshooting Emote Upload Issues

While uploading emotes to Twitch, you may encounter certain issues that prevent a smooth upload process. Understanding and troubleshooting these issues can help ensure a successful emote upload. Here are some common emote upload issues and their solutions:

1. File Size Exceeds Limit: Twitch imposes a maximum file size limit of 25kb for each emote. If your emote file exceeds this limit, you will need to reduce its size. Consider compressing the image or removing unnecessary details while preserving the overall quality.

2. Incorrect Emote Dimensions: Twitch requires emotes to be in square dimensions, ranging from 28×28 pixels to 112×112 pixels. If your emote does not meet these size requirements, resize the image accordingly. Maintaining the proper dimensions ensures that your emote is displayed correctly in Twitch chat.

3. File Format Not Supported: Twitch only accepts emotes in PNG format with a transparent background. Ensure that your emote is saved as a PNG file and that the background is transparent. If your emote is in a different file format or lacks transparency, convert the image to PNG and ensure transparency is enabled.

4. Violation of Twitch’s Guidelines: Emotes that violate Twitch’s guidelines will not be approved. Review Twitch’s guidelines and ensure that your emotes comply with their content, language, and community standards. If your emote is rejected, carefully read the feedback provided by Twitch and modify the emote to address the concerns.

5. Slow Internet Connection: If you experience slow upload speeds, it can cause issues when uploading emotes to Twitch. Consider optimizing your internet connection or uploading emotes during times when internet traffic is low. Uploading during non-peak hours can help improve upload speeds and reduce potential issues.

6. Poor Image Quality: If your emote appears blurry or pixelated, it may be due to low image resolution. Ensure that your emote has sufficient resolution and is clear and sharp when viewed. If necessary, recreate or enhance the emote to improve its clarity and overall visual quality.

7. Emote Prefix Already in Use: Each emote requires a unique prefix that users type in chat to activate the emote. If the prefix you have chosen is already in use by another emote, you will need to select a different and unique prefix for your emote. Choose a prefix that reflects the emote’s purpose and is easy for users to remember and type.

8. Corrupted Emote File: If your emote file is corrupted or has errors, it may prevent successful upload. Ensure that your emote image file is intact and not damaged. If possible, try opening and saving the emote file again to eliminate any potential corruption.

If you encounter emote upload issues that persist despite troubleshooting, consider reaching out to Twitch’s support team for assistance. They can provide further guidance and assistance in resolving more complex issues.

By troubleshooting and addressing emote upload issues promptly, you can ensure that your emotes are successfully uploaded, compliant with Twitch’s guidelines, and accessible for your viewers to enhance their engagement with your Twitch channel.

Frequently Asked Questions about Twitch Emotes

Here are some common questions that arise when it comes to Twitch emotes:

Q: How many emotes can I have on Twitch?

A: The number of emotes you can have on Twitch depends on your partnership status. Twitch Affiliates start with a set number of emote slots and unlock more slots as they achieve certain milestones. Twitch Partners have more emote slots available, with the number increasing based on their total number of subscribers.

Q: Can viewers use emotes from multiple streamers?

A: Yes, viewers can use emotes from multiple streamers as long as they are subscribed to those channels. Emotes are specific to each channel and can only be used in the chat of the respective channel, provided the viewer has an active subscription to the channel that offers those emotes.

Q: Can I use animated emotes on Twitch?

A: Currently, Twitch only supports static image emotes in PNG format. Animated emotes, such as GIFs, are not supported. Emotes must be designed as static images to be used on Twitch.

Q: Can I change or modify emotes after they’ve been approved?

A: Yes, you can make changes to emotes after they have been approved. If you want to modify an existing emote, go to the Emote Dashboard in the Twitch Creator Dashboard and select the emote you wish to modify. From there, you can edit the settings, replace the image, or make other necessary adjustments.

Q: Can I use copyrighted content for my emotes?

A: No, you should not use copyrighted content for your emotes without proper permission. It’s important to use original artwork, artwork created by you, or commissioned artwork with proper rights. Using copyrighted material without permission is against Twitch’s guidelines and can result in penalties and the removal of your emotes.

Q: Can I sell or trade Twitch emotes?

A: No, Twitch emotes are non-transferable and should not be sold or traded. Emotes are tied to the channel they were created for and are exclusive to that channel’s subscribers. They should not be transferred, sold, or used outside of the context of the channel they belong to.

Q: How do I report an emote that violates Twitch guidelines?

A: If you come across an emote that you believe violates Twitch’s guidelines, you can report it to Twitch by clicking on the user’s name in chat, selecting “Report,” and following the provided instructions. Twitch will review the reported emote and take appropriate action if necessary.

Q: Can I use emotes in other platforms or chats?

A: Emotes on Twitch are specific to the Twitch platform and can only be used within Twitch chat. They cannot be used in other chat platforms or social media platforms. Emotes are tied to the channel and its subscribers on Twitch.

Q: Can I use BetterTTV or FrankerFaceZ emotes on Twitch?

A: Yes, Twitch supports additional emote modifiers like BetterTTV and FrankerFaceZ. These emote modifiers can add more emotes to the Twitch experience. To use these emotes, viewers and streamers will need to have the respective browser extensions installed.

These are just a few frequently asked questions about Twitch emotes. For more specific inquiries, it’s recommended to consult Twitch’s official documentation or reach out to Twitch support for additional assistance.